Stress

 

What Is Stress?

Stress is a feeling or emotional state that is all too often felt, yet rarely discussed. Most people are affected by stress to some degree on a daily basis, whether it be through school, work, relationships, bills, or something else. Stress affects each individual differently and has a number of effects on the human body ranging from a mild headache or stomachache to a stroke or heart attack. Although a majority of people know the meaning of stress and how it feels, many have a difficult time actually describing the word.

Stress Defined

stress-management-300x200So, what is the actual definition of stress? According to the Oxford Dictionaries, stress is defined as “A state of mental or emotional strain or tension resulting from adverse or very demanding circumstances,” and/or “Something that causes mental strain.” There are numerous variations to the definition, as its causes and effects differ from one individual to the next. Most dictionaries, institutes, medical professionals, etc., tend to lean towards these general descriptions.

Not all stress is necessarily negative. An article on Healthline defines stress as “Your body’s response to certain situations.” According to that definition, stress could also be perceived as the body’s natural response to a positive situation as well.




Types of Stress

The types of stress are broken down by categories. According to the American Psychological Association, there are three main types of stress: acute, episodic acute, and chronic.

The most common form is acute stress, which comes from the pressure and demands of everyday life. Acute stress is short term and very manageable. While it may cause some irritability or other short term issues, acute stress alone doesn’t cause any long-term damage.

Episodic acute stress is the term used to describe cases where an individual suffers from acute stress all too often; or those who are constantly worried (sometimes referred to as “worry warts”). Individuals who suffer from episodic acute stress usually don’t see anything wrong with their lifestyle, patterns, or behavior. They may also be very opposed to change, and typically have a difficult time staying in treatment and/or staying on track towards recovery.

Chronic stress is the most severe type, wearing away at people every day for extended periods of time. This kind of stress occurs when an individual views a miserable situation as never-ending, and because the individual sees no relief for the stressful situations, they eventually give up hope of finding a solution. Chronic stress is long term and can have numerous adverse effects on the body, sometimes even resulting in changes in personality.

Acute Stress Disorder

stressed-woman-at-home-480Acute Stress Disorder (ASD) is a common occurrence after being exposed to a traumatic event. ASD is described as an instance in which a person develops severe anxiety, dissociation, and/or other symptoms within one month after experiencing the traumatic event. As a result, the individual may develop a number of symptoms such as trouble concentrating, feeling unable to enjoy things that were once enjoyable, and/or frequent feelings of guilt. There are also specific responses while remembering the event, as well as a specific period of time in which the instance must occur in order to be categorized as Acute Stress Disorder. Finally, the symptoms must cause significant damage or difficulty in the individual’s social or occupational life, or impair their ability to complete a necessary task.




Post Traumatic Stress Disorder

Post Traumatic Stress Disorder is a stress disorder categorized on its own. Often referred to as PTSD, it is a severe and possibly debilitating condition that can occur in individuals whom have experienced or witnessed an extremely traumatic event (natural disaster, serious accident, war). While people may recover from the traumatic event, sufferers of PTSD live with depression, anxiety, and many other symptoms for months, or even years after the event. Post Traumatic Stress Disorder is commonly ignored or overlooked, therefore individuals suffering often don’t get the help they need. Also, because they may have difficulties maintaining relationships or may even push friends and family away, they are even more likely to suffer in silence.

Workplace Stress

man-stressed-at-workWorkplace stress can be described as an individual’s response to the pressures or demands placed upon them by their job. Generally speaking, people tend to experience workplace stress when they’re expected to complete tasks that are out of their realm of abilities or comfort. This type of stress is typically made worse when the person feels little or no support from co-workers and/or supervisors. Workplace stress can lead to numerous adverse effects on an individual both physically and mentally, as well as a decrease in job performance.

Student Stress

stressed-student1Student stress is a common occurrence among those attending any type of school. Initial stress factors may include being away from home for the first time (college), making new friends, etc. However, typically students feel the most stress during presentations (speeches) or exams. And while a small amount of stress can be positive — it pushes the individual to do their best — too much stress can have severe negative effects. This type of stress occurs when the student begins to display the normal symptoms of stress (anxiety, irritability, lack of sleep, etc.) in response to pressures regarding school. The pressure may come from parents, teachers, coaches, etc., and can even cause a decrease in school performance due to nervousness or the fear of failure.

Teen Stress

300x200xStressed-While school is the number one stress factor for them, teenagers also feel stress in other aspects of life as well. The pressure to be popular, to look or dress a certain way, pressure to experiment with drugs, problems at home, and countless other things contribute to teenage stress. According to a study done by the American Psychological Association (APA), teens experience both physical and emotional symptoms of stress. Some of the most common symptoms among teens experiencing stress include feeling nervous or anxious, changes in sleeping and/or eating habits, procrastination, feeling overwhelmed, and several others. The APA advises teens who feel stressed to stay active, get enough sleep, maintain a healthy balance of work and fun, and/or talk to someone about their stress.

Emotional Stress

Couple in bed, man looking worried
Stress can interrupt sleep patterns.

Emotional stress is the instance in which an individual experiences stress that affects their emotions. Typically these instances are referred to as general stress. Although it’s called emotional stress, the effects can also include mental, behavioral, and physical symptoms, as well. However, an ordinary (“normal”) level of stress is not considered a psychological disorder. Although everyone copes with stress differently, common symptoms may include changes in the thought process, changes in sleeping or eating habits, feeling sad or angry, headaches, neck pain, and many others. A small amount of stress can sometimes be positive, but becomes an issue when it begins to affect everyday functions.

Stress and Anxiety

stress-and-anxietyStress and anxiety almost always accompany one another. However, the difference between the two is that stress is a response to demands or pressures, and anxiety is a reaction to the stress. Together they can lead to a number of mental, physical, emotional, and behavioral issues. Some of the initial symptoms of stress and anxiety may include increased heart rate, rapid breathing, headaches, changes in eating and sleeping habits, difficulty concentrating, irrational anger, and countless others. In addition, those who suffer from stress and anxiety over a long period of time are more likely to have health issues because of it. They are more likely to develop diabetes, high blood pressure, heart disease, and possibly even depression and panic disorder.

Causes of Stress

Due to the fact that stress itself is such a subjective term, it’s impossible to pinpoint specific factors that could be considered a stressor for everyone. However, several studies have been conducted to determine what the most common stress factors include. According to Healthline, there are 10 main categories of stress factors. The 10 generalized categories include: health, relationships, emotional problems, life changes, money, personal beliefs, occupation, discrimination, environment, and traumatic events. Of course each category includes more specific stress factors (i.e. life changes could include moving or starting a new job, etc.), but are fairly universal. Keep in mind, what stresses one individual may not necessarily cause stress for another.

Signs and Symptoms of Stress (and Chronic Stress)

In small amounts, stress can sometimes be positive; however, when a person feels too much stress it can begin to have adverse effects on their health. Stress can affect an individual’s mental, emotional, physical, and behavioral health. Signs and symptoms of acute (short-term) stress may include increased heart rate, shortness of breath, headaches, stomachaches, dry mouth, sore muscles, and changes in eating and sleeping habits. While these symptoms are short lived, for those who suffer from chronic (long-term) stress, signs and symptoms become more severe. Some common signs and symptoms of chronic stress may include increased nervous behavior (nail biting, teeth grinding, etc.), restlessness and fatigue, feeling angry or irritable, neglecting responsibilities, developing irrational fears, and many others.

Prevent and/or Manage Stress

Though a majority of people wish they could, it’s impossible to eliminate stress completely. However, there are ways to effectively manage stressful factors. According to Healthline, there are steps that can be taken in order to help prevent controllable stress. These steps include first identifying the stress factors (figuring out what exactly causes stress), and avoiding those factors as much as possible. To avoid getting overwhelmed, setting limits on activities and setting aside time to relax is essential. Communicating with others about stress factors can help ease the burden of dealing with it alone, and regular exercise helps lessen the symptoms of stress and anxiety. Finally, being positive can help relieve the symptoms, as well. When worries or nervousness begin to take over, thinking positive things, listening to music, or having a laugh with a friend can turn the mood around. Actively managing stress levels can stop short-term stress from becoming chronic stress.

Handling/Coping with Stress

Coping with certain stress factors may be easier for some individuals than it is for others. However, whether it may be individually or with the help of a professional, there are methods and techniques designed to help those suffering from stress to better cope with their stress factors. Individual coping skills include identifying and avoiding (when possible) the stressful situations, taking a break from the stress (even if it’s just during a short walk — exercise helps too!), seeking support from friends or family, and relaxation methods (such as meditation or yoga). If the stress can’t be handled alone, an individual may need to seek the help of a health care professional. Doctors may suggest things such as their own relaxation methods, talk therapy, role-playing to resolve issues, hypnosis, or a number of other techniques.

How to Relieve Stress/Stress Relievers

As previously mentioned, stress can’t be completely eliminated. However, there are effective stress relievers that individuals can test to see which ones work best for them. Though there is likely an endless number of things that may reduce stress for each individual, there are basic stress relievers that are believed to be universally effective. According to the Mayo Clinic, the most common stress relievers include getting active, connecting and laughing with others, getting the right amount of sleep, trying yoga or meditation, keeping a journal, and listening to music and getting creative. Some individuals obtain stress relief color books or stress balls (balls filled with sand or a similar substance that helps relieve stress when squeezed), while others find that sports or music help reduce their stress levels. Finally, if the stress feels like it’s too much to handle alone, seeking professional help is the first step to effectively relieving stress.

Stress Tests

Stress tests – also sometimes referred to as an exercise stress test – are a way of monitoring and gathering information about how a person’s heart functions during physical activity. During the test, electrodes are placed on the arms, legs, and chest to record the heart’s electrical signals. A blood pressure cuff is also placed on one arm to continuously monitor blood pressure throughout the test. The individual then begins to walk on a treadmill or pedal a stationary bike. As the test progresses, the speed and incline of the treadmill are increased, or the resistance on the bike (making it harder to pedal). The individual continues the exercise until a target heart rate is reached, or until symptoms occur that prevent the test from continuing (such as chest pain or dizziness). Once the test is over, the doctor collects and reviews the information in order to determine the best plan of action for the patient.

Improving Your Quality of Life

Countless people experience stress every single day, but the good news is there are methods to help prevent, manage, cope with, and relieve the symptoms of stress as well as techniques to encourage relaxation. Having a good support system, such as friends and family, is extremely helpful for those looking to overcome the effects of their stress. And though many people are afraid to ask for help, there is absolutely no shame in reaching out for help when it is needed. Recognizing the issue is the first step towards a less stressful life. It’s never too late to make life more enjoyable.

Anxiety

 

What You Should Know About Anxiety


Everyone experiences anxiety from time to time. For example, we’re all familiar with the anxiety of trying to meet a deadline or make a big decision. But people with anxiety disorders have chronic anxiety that interferes with their ability to live a normal life. An anxiety disorder is a mental disorder, and there are several recognized types of anxiety. Anxiety disorders are the most common type of mental illness in the United States, affecting about 18 percent of the population according to the National Institute of Mental Health. The good news is there are several treatment options and self-help tools that can help you manage an anxiety disorder.

Symptoms of an Anxiety Disorder

anxietyAnxiety symptoms vary by person, and they can include emotional and physical symptoms. The primary symptom of an anxiety disorder is excessive or irrational worry or fear.




Emotional symptoms of anxiety may include:

•Anticipating the worst-case scenario

•Irritability

•Feelings of dread

•Difficulty concentrating

•Anticipating danger

•Difficulty thinking

Physical symptoms of anxiety may include:

•Sweating

•Pounding heart

•Dizziness

•Shortness of breath

•Frequent urination

•Twitches, tremors, or tense muscles

•Headaches

•Insomnia

anxiety1Sometimes people with an anxiety disorder experience what’s known as an anxiety attack, which comes on suddenly. Anxiety or panic attacks may be triggered by something such as needing to give a speech or they may come without warning. Most anxiety attacks last less than 30 minutes, but the terror of an anxiety attack can be very frightening. Many people believe they are having a heart attack during an anxiety attack because of symptoms such as heart palpitations, chest pain, a choking sensation, hyperventilation, hot flashes, and trembling.

What Causes Anxiety Disorders?

Researchers aren’t sure exactly what causes anxiety disorders, but it’s likely caused by a number of factors. Anxiety disorders are not the result of a character flaw or weakness, however.

remedies-anxiety-400x400It’s believed that anxiety disorders are caused by many factors like environmental stress, brain stress, and genetics. Like other brain disorders, anxiety can be the result of problems with the way the brain functions and regulates emotions and fear. Research has found that people with long-lasting anxiety or stress actually change the way nerve cells in their brains communicate. Some studies have also found that people with certain types of anxiety have changes in some brain structures that control memories.

Researchers do know that anxiety tends to run in families and the risk for an anxiety disorder can be passed from one or both parents. It may be triggered by an environmental factor as well such as trauma.




Common Types of Anxiety

Anxiety disorders are a group of similar conditions, and they can vary a great deal between people. Everyone experiences anxiety differently, but they all come with severe or persistent fear in situations that would not be worrisome to most people.

Generalized Anxiety Disorder (GAD)

People who have generalized anxiety disorder worry constantly or have a persistent feeling that something bad is about to happen. GAD can interfere with daily life by making you feel anxious almost constantly, even though you do not know why you are anxious. Generalized anxiety disorder often displays with physical symptoms like fatigue, an upset stomach, and insomnia. This is the most common type of anxiety, affecting about 3 percent of the U.S. population (6.8 million adults), and about twice as many women as men.

Social Anxiety Disorder

75531e8510a2201381d1a4b1fbcdcf3bAbout 15 million adults in the U.S. have social anxiety disorder. People with social anxiety disorder have a crippling fear of being viewed negatively by others or publically humiliated. Many people mistakenly believe someone with social anxiety disorder is merely shy, but the disorder goes much deeper. While some degree of shyness or fear of some social situations — such as public speaking — is normal, social phobia can disrupt your life.

Many people with social anxiety disorder have a deep and irrational fear of doing something embarrassing or stupid and they view public situations as potentially frightening. Unlike people who are shy, people with a social phobia will avoid normal socialization. Many display avoidance behavior which makes it harder to seek treatment. A 2007 survey found that more than one-third of people with this type of anxiety disorder do not seek help for at least ten years.

Panic Disorder

You may have a panic disorder if you have several, unexpected panic attacks and the fear of suffering another attack. Sometimes panic disorder accompanies agoraphobia. Panic disorder is different than generalized anxiety disorder and it has nothing to do with the normal amount of panicking most people do when they are faced with a stressful decision or event.

Panic disorder can cause you to experience a sense of doom that leads to physical and emotional symptoms. These symptoms can be so intense as to require hospitalization. The emotional symptoms of a panic attack — such as a feeling of doom and a sense of helplessness — usually peak 10 minutes into a panic attack.

Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD)

About 1 percent of the U.S. population has obsessive-compulsive disorder. This disorder often presents with fears and behaviors that may seem confusing and irrational to the person as well as others. Obsessions are thought-based, or a preoccupation with specific thoughts like fears that can’t be ignored. Compulsions are behavior-based, or a need to perform an activity or action in a specific way.

Someone with obsessive-compulsive disorder may be fearful and anxious if they do not follow a compulsion to flip a light switch on and off before leaving, for example, or obsessively worry about the house burning down. The obsessions and compulsions are often linked.

Anxiety in Children

images11Just as with adults, anxiety is common among children and teenagers. It’s believed that anxiety disorders affect 1 in 8 children. The Child Mind Institute Children’s Mental Health Report estimated that 80 percent of kids with an anxiety disorder are not being treated, however. Children with an anxiety disorder may seem shy, nervous, or fearful and begin avoiding certain activities. Unlike a child who has a nightmare or a temporary fear after watching a scary movie, children with an anxiety disorder cannot be soothed and need help to get past their anxiety.

There are a few types of anxiety disorders most common in children:

  • Separation anxiety disorder. This disorder affects 4 percent of children — usually between 7 and 9 — who have trouble being left by a parent or family member without extreme anxiety and homesickness.
  • Social anxiety disorder or an intense fear of social situations. GET HELP HERE
  • Selective mutism occurs when children refuse to speak to a degree that it interferes with making friends and participating at school. Children with this type of anxiety disorder may stand still with no expression, avoid eye contact, or withdraw in social situations but otherwise display normal behavior at home or where they are comfortable.
  • Generalized anxiety disorder. Children with GAD worry constantly about many things such as sports, family issues, relationships with peers, and grades.

How to Deal with Anxiety

Anxiety disorders are very treatable and there are many treatment options. After being diagnosed by a health care professional, you can try:

•Therapy

•Medication

•Complementary and alternative treatment

Self-help

Some people respond to a specific treatment after a few weeks or months, but some people need a year or longer. Treatment for anxiety can be complicated if you have more than one type of anxiety disorder or you have a co-existing condition like depression.

Therapy

Therapy is the most common treatment for anxiety, and it comes in many forms. Possible forms of therapy that may help include:

  • Exposure therapy aims to reduce your anxiety responses by gradually exposing you to a feared situation to become less sensitive. This type of therapy is most effective for phobias and obsessive-compulsive disorder.
  • Cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) is a very effective treatment that focuses on identifying and changing your behavior and thinking patterns. Most people begin to see results after three or four months. During therapy, you will develop a sense of control by taking an active role in your recovery.
  • Eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR). Eye movements can reduce the intensity of harmful or disturbing thoughts in some situations. This treatment affects the way the brain processes information. It has been found to be effective in the treatment of post-traumatic stress disorder, phobias, and panic disorder.

Medication

images2Medication can be used to treat anxiety with or without therapy. Medication can be used as a short-term or long-term treatment, depending on your situation and symptoms. There are four classes of medications that can treat anxiety disorders:

  • Benzodiazepines such as lorazepam, diazepam, clonazepam, and alprazolam. These drugs are usually used for short-term treatment and they work by reducing physical symptoms and promoting relaxation.
  • Tricyclic antidepressants like imipramine, nortriptyline, and amitriptyline. These antidepressants can be very effective in treating anxiety, but they can also cause significant side effects.
  • Serotonin-Norepinephrine Reuptake Inhibitors (SNRIs) like duloxetine and venlafaxine. These drugs increase the levels of serotonin and norepinephrine in the brain by inhibiting their reabsorption. They are especially helpful in treating generalized anxiety disorder.
  • Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors (SSRIs) like citalopram, paroxetine, sertraline, and fluoxetine. These drugs have fewer side effects than tricyclic antidepressants but they can be effective in the treatment of all types of anxiety disorders.

Complementary and Alternative Medicine (CAM)

Treatment options outside of conventional medicine can also be effective, whether they are used along with conventional medication or on their own. The most common CAM treatments used for anxiety include:

•Acupuncture

•Meditation

•Relaxation techniques

Yoga

sun rising meditationMeditation is the most widely-studied form of CAM and its benefits in the treatment of anxiety have been documented. Meditation doesn’t provide instant results, and it does take daily commitment. Still, meditation can help quiet the brain and help break you out of a stressful thought process.

Anxiety and Your Health

Chronic anxiety can have serious consequences for your health. Anxiety triggers the “flight or fight” response by releasing stress hormones and chemicals into the blood. These hormones increase your breathing rate and pulse to boost oxygen to the brain. When anxiety or stress is chronic or lasts too long, the body never returns to normal functioning from this state. This can weaken the immune system, digestive system, cardiovascular system, reproductive system, and more.

Research has found many risks of long-term, untreated stress and anxiety:

  • Worsening skin conditions like acne and psoriasis
  • Contributes to hair loss
  • Worsens asthma attacks
  • Increases the risk of stroke and heart disease
  • Reproductive problems for men and women such as erectile dysfunction and menstrual disorders
  • Muscle aches and spasms from muscle tension
  • Stubborn fat gain from elevated cortisol (stress hormone) levels
  • Higher risk of high blood pressure and high cholesterol
  • Gastrointestinal problems. Stress hormones can slow the release of stomach acid and the emptying of the stomach and lead to diarrhea, inflammation of the colon lining, and increasing the risk of IBS
  • Weakened immune system can make you more likely to get infections, colds and flus while increasing the risk of autoimmune disorders and autoimmune disease flare-ups

It’s important to do something about chronic anxiety to protect not only your health but improve your quality of life. If you suspect you have an anxiety disorder, get a diagnosis so you can explore treatment options.